The production of oil painting inner frame and canvas is a very important material preparation before oil painting, and its quality is one of the important factors that directly affect the success or failure of the work. Since the 1960s, Western developed countries led by the United States have used various advanced technologies to greatly improve the quality of oil painting materials, including the base material and paint of canvas, and solved many previously unsolved problems: cracking, oil absorption, hair Gray, mildew, etc., and at the same time, the production of oil painting frames and the use of canvas, color, seasoning and other materials tend to be standardized and recognized. Art academies also regard the use of new materials and production techniques as a compulsory knowledge for students. The production requirements of contemporary oil paintings exhibited and collected in galleries and museums are also standardized. The following is a brief description of the standard production methods of modern western oil painting inner frames and canvases:
1. Oil painting inner frame
Nowadays, many oil paintings no longer need to be displayed with an outer frame. The new inner frame can extend the surface of the original painting to the sides and four sides of the frame, increasing the space of the oil painting, and has a three-dimensional, beautiful, and heavy effect. Oil paintings that need to be equipped with outer frames, and now there are various kinds of outer frames, not just the previous single cover type, many of them are three-dimensional, concave and convex forms, which can simultaneously show the new-style outer frame of the inner frame.
Making the inner frame by yourself is the first class offered by the Western Art Institute for freshmen (painting major). Under the guidance of the teacher, students master the performance of using various machines and tools, and make their own inner frames that meet the requirements of the gallery. The following is a schematic diagram of several kinds of inner frames: The above inner frames have the following characteristics:
1. All wooden slats on the back of the frame must be kept flush, and no wooden slats can protrude from the plane.
2. The angle of the bevel of the frame is about 30 degrees. The diagonal, straight and cross bars in the frame must not be higher than the inner side of the frame, so that after the canvas is stretched, it will not touch any wooden strips on the inner side. Make the canvas flexible.
3. The wood should be dry, not easily deformed, and good quality wood. Different sizes of frames have different sizes of wood. In principle, the larger the frame, the thicker the wood. Generally speaking, if you make a frame by yourself, if it is less than 1 meter, the wood on the side of the frame can be 2, 5 × 4 cm; for the frame larger than 1 meter, 3 × 6 cm wooden strips can be used; the side of the frame is the width of the wooden strip , In this way, the frame is stretched on the canvas and hung on the wall with thickness, weight and three-dimensionality. On the contrary, it appears thin and weak. The wood for the rungs, straights and diagonals can be 2 x 4 cm. The frame is very small, so you don't need the rungs and the diagonals, or you can choose one of them. The choice of wood is directly related to the firmness of the frame, and will not be deformed due to different forces and climates.
2. Stretching the canvas
The cloth used for oil painting is mainly linen cloth and canvas. The two high-quality cloths should be thick, firm, and dense with fibers. For hundreds of years, canvases have been stretched on the outside of the inner frame and nailed. Professional artists in the United States now nail the canvas to the back of the frame and use staples from a staple gun to fix the canvas.
The advantages of this new method are:
1. The new stretching method can display the side of the frame. Even if the outer frame is not used, the picture remains intact and can be exhibited. At the same time, it has a sense of weight. If you want to match the outer frame, some outer frames can also display the full picture of the inner frame to highlight The three-dimensional effect of the whole work. As for the old stretching method, the oil painting must be displayed with a frame.
2. The picture of the new stretch method is nailed to the back of the frame. The canvas has undergone two 90-degree turns, and the force of the staple is wider than the nail, so the canvas can be more tightly fixed on the frame. The canvas of the old stretching method is stretched on the outside of the frame and only rotates at a 90-degree angle. It is not easy to be stretched, and it is susceptible to the influence of dry, wet, cold, and hot weather to deform and stretch the canvas.